The famous naturalist and hunter Alfred Brehm wrote: «I am familiar with the pleasures of hunter's life, because hunted in many countries... and may say what hunting and hunter's life are ... Everything the nature could provide to man, the hunting provides to hunter. It opens the depth of forest, leads him through green valleys and mountains, carries him towards the seas, rolls him on the river surface, shows him ways to impassable moors, rules his boat on a quite lake... It makes even more, educate him and seek to make him a man of noble bode and spirit».
Thirty five years ago, rural boy, recognized the great mystery of forest and hunting ... Nature and hunting became part of my life and my job, and Brahm is right: hunting strengthen the spirit in me and the bode, it made me the human.
Today all over the world the attitude towards the hunting is changing in minds of millions of people. Many think that killing "minorities" - is barbarism and savagery. But for also millions hunting remains the greatest passion and way to communicate with nature. For many peoples it is a natural way of life and possibility, sometimes a sole, to feed themselves. Until the hunting remains - so will the disputes around it.
Hunting in Buryatia and in the whole Baikal region differs with a variety. Evenks, Buryats, Russians have tens of hunting methods for various game, and today, as well as previously, the task of hunting - is keeping of the best traditions in hunting culture of nations.
THE LIVING WEALTH OF TAIGA
Our Siberian taiga still is reach in "red" animal. Sable, squirrel, muskrat, partially Siberian weasel, ermine make the basis for fur business. Among ungulates the following are the hunting objects: elk, European red deer, Siberian roe deer, reindeer, hog, and musk-deer. The following species among upland bowl are gamed: Tetrao urogallus and Tetrao parvirostris, Lyrurus tetrix, hazel-grouse, white grouse, and grey Daurian partridge. Among the most prevailing hunting waterfowls there are mallard, gadwall, wigeon, pintail, European teal, Baikal teal etc., and among large predators - brown bear, wolf and lynx.
The taiga animals take varies year by year and depends on many factors - their number, crop yield of berries and nuts, diseases among animals, market demand and selection of sport hunting. Barguzinsky sable skins are in the stable and constant demand. The demand on skins of squirrel, Siberian weasel, ermine, and on Manchurian deer antlers, bear's bile and musk-deer's musk does not decrease. In recent time the interest to hog as the sport hunting object and, correspondingly, its catch in Pribaikalsky, Zaigraevsky, Khoronsky districts is growing. The hunting on hog became usual in Mukhorshibirsky, Bichurinsky, Kiakhtinsky districts and at Zagansky, Tzagan-Daban, Khudunsky, Mukhor-Tala ridges. There reasons to suggest on the high illegal shooting of elk. The catchment of bear, European red deer, sable is decreasing, what is connected with the temporary restrictions. At the same time the caught sables are getting to the procurement system in a disproportionately small amount, mainly remains at the hunters. One of the reasons - the procurement price is 2-3 times, and even 5 times lower than the "shadow".
Also, the significant amount of squirrel skins accumulated at hunters under the growth of its procurement. The demand for muskrat skins and musksquash products remains significant, what promotes the poaching ways for its catchment.
PROTECT AND CONSERVE
The major goal of protection and use of hunting resources - is conservation of natural populations of basic hunting animal species. The main directions here are support of natural reproduction of hunting resources, reinforcement of material and technical basis of hunting and improvement of economic mechanism. The insufficient funding became the factor retraining the performance of hunting animals' protection, in line with what there is a lack of ability to technically update the State Hunting Surveillance services. Estimated demand in funding for the Baikal Natural Territory is 373.9 million rubles for 2003-2015 period, from which 40.1% should come from the federal budget, 40% - from the regional and 19.9 - from non-budget sources.
Modern system of hunting regulating economic mechanism is formed on the principles of economic independence of hunting users based on the market prices, which scales are determined by the consumer properties of the product, demand for it and other conditions.
The effective operation of hunting sector is impossible without the establishment of scientifically grounded economic mechanism. It is necessary to introduce very cautiously the various extra fees for utilization of animal world objects and areas (hunting sites), because introduction of fees for hunting resources under the existing economic conditions would busted many hunting entities. Development of these entities is real in a larger degree under the small-scale funding (small-scale state favourable crediting option) of manufacturers, since the hunt-users per se are small-scale enterprises.