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The district of Muhorshibir

Source:  Tourist Buryatia. - 2009. - . 149-151.

Muhorshibir is situated in the central part of the south of our republic, it is crossed by the river Muhorshibirka. There is Zagansky chain to the north-east Tugnuiskaya plain on the north. Muhorshibir is the mixture of two Buryat words: "muhar" ‑ the deadline, finish, limit, and "she-ber"‑thick forest.

It is one more area where lots of Semeyskie live. Long ago in march of 1767 the third part of Semeyskie - 453 people arrived from Zadneprovie. They were going to Zaganskie villages. V. Perchenko and F. Boloneva suppose that one officer and three soldiers accompanied these people. In Zabaikalie they were not monitored a lot because there was no place for them to run away. So they were supposed to live in Sharaldaj, NewZagan, Muhorshibir, Honholoj, Nicolsk and Haraus. The Muhorshibir unity was founded in 1804, it united 11 Russian villages.

Russians appeared in this region in 1730-1735s. The first Russian settler was a soldier Ignaty Zavialov, at that time the village is mentioned as the shore of the river. By the end of 18 century people of old faith started to settle in the village. They settled mostly on Lenin street (Tractovaya), the evidence of this fact was the church of people of old faith, which stood on this street for many years.

An old village of Semeyskie named Nicolskoe, which was founded in 1765, is situated in the middle of mountains in the forest, with Maidan and Sanguraiky to the east, fertile soils to the south, the plain between mountains very far to the west. The population was growing the village became some kind of a district, in 1884 the church was built there it was the church of St. Nicola, it gave the name Nicolskoe. Now there is the museum in the school of the village, there different subjects of culture and history are exhibited.

In Mukhorshibirski region there is a village surrounded by sloping mounds, one almost woodless, others covered with dark spots of spiny copses; taken prisoners by taiga thick thicket and boundless Zaganskaya and Sukharinskaya valleys. The village was named after the rivulet, which carries its clear waters from the Zaganski mountain ridge. For the first time the name of New Zagan was mentioned in 1767. In his book "Semeiskiye" F. Bolonev writes: "In March 1767 the third group arrived in Zaganski villages on 25 carts..." The same year the Semeiskiye built the village of Zaganski with 22 houses and 140 people in number. In 69 years after the Cossacks some families of Old Believers came to live there, but the wouldn't settle here, and builtanew village, i.e. NewZagan. And the village, which had been found by the Cossacks, was referred to as the Old Village, and later on ‑ OldZagan. Today the only acting church in the region is the Old Orthodox Church which is situated in the village of New Zagan. The Semeiskiye also peopled in the well-known for 300 years already the village of Sharaldai. As the legend runs in the ancient times when tribes of different peoples resided there, the kin of Sharaldai lived there as well. The kin came to live at Sukhara, where now there is a village named in memory of those former Sharaldai, from their former habitat in the valley of the Kuda (Priangarye).

The Semeiskiye ploughed up ridges and hill slopes; cleared forests; drained marshlands; but in spite of all the steps they took, the inclement local conditions made the developing of grounds rather problematic. Therefore from time to time unauthorized seizures of state and other reckoned Tungus Buryat pasturable and other lots took place there.

The first centers of agriculture were founded by the Byriat people. They not only chose the places for it, but also set an example for farming adaptation to the local conditions. Lamas acres by the Tsolgins Datsan exemplify this; later on the first Old Believers settlement established its foothold in them.

The foundation of the Gashei village is dated 1895. The name of the village comes from the name of the small river Gasheika; it spring from the spurs of the Bichura mountain range. Along the small mountain river loghouses were built. The first villages grubbed trees out, cleared areas under crop. They built seven mills on the Gasheika River. It was possible to build such a number of mills due to the good climatic conditions: the river would not freeze all the year round, even in winter. The mills could work steadily.

The villagesof Gashei strictly observed their traditions and customs. They prayed before a meal, children had to keep silent during it (otherwise the elders could beat them in the forehead with a spoon). The elders were esteemed.

In the Soviet time in 1927 natives of Big Kunalei, Tarbagatai Region, founded the village of Kalinovka. And what was the reason of this resettlement? The population of Big Kunalei was rapidly increasing, and there was a shortage of lands. Therefore the villagers started to develop new lands. Having crossed the taiga mountain ridges, the first settlers built squattings. At first the wanted to give the village the name of Rogovo, as the squat-tings of the Rogovs were the first built there. Butasin 1929 the Chairman of the USSR Supreme Soviet Presidium M.I. Kalinin gave an official permission to found a settlement there, the village was called Kalinovka.

Even now in the local club the Semeiski folk group "Kalinka" works. It is well-known not only in Buryatia, but out of bound of it as well. The group keeps the cultural wealth of the village.



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