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Kurumkansky district

Source:  Tourist Buryatia. - 2009. - . 105-109.

Kurumkan district is situated in the north-eastern part of the Republic of Buryatia it borders on Barguzin district in the south and on Baunt and Severo-Baikalskii districts in the north. The district is rich in rivers and lakes. The Barguzin River is the main one, its extension makes about 400 km. Within the district big rivers the Garga and the Argada flow into the Barguzin. Lake Amut is the biggest; its area makes more than 60 hectares. Different kinds of fish can be found in the rivers such as: an oike, a crucian, an ide, a taimen, a sturgeon, a white-fish, an omul, a grayling.

The district is famous for its best forests in Buryatia. Especially forest tracts in upper reaches of the Barguzin and its tributaries stand out. Here one can find light coniferous forests consisted of archangel fir, Siberian larch, relict dark coniferous taiga. The flora is presented by taiga, marsh, mountain, steppe, memorial kinds of flowering plants and makes more than 2000 species. The fauna is of great interest. In hunting grounds of the district one can find a roe, a glutton, a squirrel, a famous barguzin sable; in the lakes and rivers a musk-rat can be found, as well.

On the territory of the district there is famous Jerdinskii reserve. Sacred relict Amut hollow is the heart of the reserve. Here you can find the oldest place of worship of the vanished tribe of the Barguts. Rare and vanishing sorts of plants and animals are of great interest. In the reserve there is: a black stork, a sun eagle, a golden eagle, an erne, a merlin, a peregrin, a black otter.

The recreational complex of the district has got the richest unique potential: a big number of mineral and  thermal springs; original microclimate of rivers shoes and the Barguzin Mountains. Within the district more than 50 mineral springs different in stricture have been registered: hot sulphate-hydrocarbonate-natrium, hydrogen-sulphidous, sulphate-natrium containing radon, Nowadays some of them have been assimilated and  many health resorts are functioning on their basis. The most famous resorts are Kuchiger, Umkhei, Alia, Garga.

KUCHIGER THERMAL SPRINGS           

Kuchigerthermal springs were described in 1910 by V.K.Kotulskii. Sometime later in 1925 they were visited by A.V. Nikolayev, who counted 17 outlets of therms with water temperature 40°C. Further on the springs wertjH studied by different researchers.                                

Kuchiger hydrotherms come out at the north-western part of Barguzin hollow on the right bank of the Barguzin River in Kuchiger tract. The health resort is situatedata distance of 4,5-5km from the village of Ulunkhan and 88 km from the district centre.                             

The waters of Kuchiger therm are of sulphate-hyccarbonate-natrium composition and sulphuretted hudrogen content is about 29 ml/1. Also the springs are famous for the fact that while going through mellow soil sediments and enriching them in sulphuretted hydrogen thermal, waters make sufficient supply of medicinal suphuretted hydrogen . The local population and guests use the mud to cure diseases of musculoskeletal system, peripheral nervous system, gynecological disorders and dermatoses.

Nowadays the resort is developing: comfortable dwelling blocks have been built, personal services are carried out, and there are some blocks for taking baths and mud. According to folk token the resort has peculiar healing strength of the water and mud during the period of bird cherry tree blossoming.

Kuchiger springs are presented by agroupof springs and two lines of the springs can be distinguished. The springs of the first line border with rather a shallow lake (0,2 — 0,3 m deep); its bottom is composed of green-gray silt covered with green mucous driftweed. The water temperature in the therms varies from 21°Cto75C. In the second line of the springs there are "Ooutlets. One more outlet is registered at a distance of 0,7 km to the south-west from the main outlets.

UMKHEY THERMAL SPRINGS

In the north of Barguzin valley there is the most beautiful place called Umkhey. The resort is situated at a distance of 100 km from the district centre and 17 km from the village of Ulunkhan. The balneary is situated on the island in the middle of the Barguzin River at the joint of two mountain chains: Barguzin and Ikat.

Umkhey thermal springs are used to cure musculoskeletal system diseases, gynecological disorders and dermatoses, complications of peripheral nervous system, osteomyelitis. The resort becomes more and more popular among the people of the Republic owing to its comfortable dwelling blocks, picturesque nature and healing characteristics of its waters. Nowadays a lot of new blocks for holiday-makers are being built.

There are 146 springs on the territory of the resort, which crop in seven groups. The main outlet of the therms is situated on the island and on both banks of the river. The thermal waters of Umkhey are sulphate-hydro-carbonate-natrium. They are characterized by highfluorine content, silicic acid and sulphuretted hydrogen.

The water temperature is about 500C, pH alkaline is 9, mineralization is 0,42 g/l.

The river valley by the spring is 2 km wide; its left bank is composed of limestone, the right one is composed of granitoids.

BUKSEKHEN COLD SPRING

The spring is situated next to the north-western part of Barguzin hollow, not far from the village of Elysoon. The spring originates from under the rock ledge by four griffins and flows together making wonder-working arshan (famous medicinal water). The four springs have their balneal characteristics. The spring water is ultra-fresh with mineralization 90 mg/l. The main characteristic of the spring is its high content of cations of silver. The second name of the arshan is "Silver water".

In 2001 three new blocks were built on the territory of the spring and now it is visited by more people. They come here to prevent from and cure musculoskeletal system diseases, peripheral nervous system diseases, digestive apparatus and metabolism diseases.

ALLIN THERMAL SPRINGS

In the valley of the river Alia, the right tributary of the Barguzin River there are more than 50 outlets of hot springs; their temperature varies from 50°C to 77C. They come out through thickness of gravel, pebble and sand. The springs of the river Alia are situated in the picturesque mountain gorge, not far from the village of Alia which is about 54 km from the district centre. They have been famous since the middle of the XIX century. The resort is surrounded by primeval coniferous forests. The gorge is topped by fantastical rocks and white snow picks of the Barguzin range.

Allin thermal springs are used to cure musculoskeletal system diseases, nervous system, skin diseases, gynecological disorders, gastritis. There are comfortable blocks for guests and holiday-makers.

GARGA THERMAL SPRING

The thermal water of Garga spring come out from a small hollow making unique patterns of mineral sediments. The spring water is used to cure musculoskeletal system diseases, peripheral nervous system diseases, skin diseases and gynaecological disorders.

Apartf rom healing thermal characteristics the spring is famous for its mountain landscape with a picturesque thick forest, fresh air and a beautiful fast-flowing Garga with its pure water. The thermal water of the spring relates to the goryachinskii type. The therm temperature varies in wide limits from 20°C to 76C.

The territory of Kurumkan district as whole Barguzirvalley is rich in monuments of antiquity culture. A site of primitive peoples was discovered in 1950 not far from Lake Khaskhal.

The impements of Iron Age such as knives, arrowheads, stirrups and other things were found in the flood-lands of the Argada River, not far from the village Bugsekhen. Natural geological monuments are the rocks Kher Shoshogo and Uudee Shuulun in the place of Shene Galzhin in Kuitun steppe to the south-east of Lake Saggan Noore at the turn of Barguzin and Kurumkan districts. They make an effective rock outlet, the only one in the Kuituns. Shene Galzhin is one of the biggest burial places of buryat shamans in Barguzin valley. There is a big slab necropolis of the Bronze Age consisted of 60 graves and two watch stones round the southern and eastern bottoms of the rocky ledge. There are engraved paintings on one of these stones. There is a necropolis of later origin in 500 metres to the south-east from the described burial ground. In 1973 rock paintings were discovered in the niche of the eastern flatness of the rock. This old petroglyphic painting dates back to the Bronze Age.

In the steppe not far from the village Elysoon there is a mortar (subuurga) of the famous buddhistic priest, the prior of Barguzin monastery Tsiden Sodoev who died in 1916 at the age of 70; according to the buddhistic religion his ashes were immured into the mortar.

There is a buddhistic monastery in the village of Kurumkan and in the village Alia there is an evenk centre "Yukte".











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