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IMPORTANT BIRD AREAS AS GUARANTEE OF CONSERVATION OF BIRDS DIVERSITY OF THE LAKE BAIKAL

Author:  Elaev E.
Source:  Water quality and traditions in lake areas: The 6-th Living Lakes Conference Ulan-Ude, Lake Baikal, Russia July 30-th – August 3-rd, 2001. – Ulan-Ude, 2001. - P.49-51.

The Important bird areas (IBA) are a place to concentrations of one or several species of birds of inwardly their areas at a period of breeding, molting and migration. A birds as one of the important components an biota the most were powerfully anthropogenic influence in the past century. So, in the Red book of Russia now included 123 species of birds (or 17% from 732 species, noted in our country), in the Red book of Buryatia - 78 (10,6%) (instead of 72 in edition 1988) (Dorzhiyev, Yelayev, Yesheyev, 1999). The problem of saving of birds species, particularly rare, is first the problem of conservation their habitats. One of the most efficient methods a protection is a conservation the most valuable for birds areas, or IBA.
On Baikal selected 8 IBA - the North-Baikal wetlands, the Barguzinsky reserve, the Olkhon island and Pryolkhonye, the Svjatoj Nos wetlands with Barguzinskij and Chivyrkujskiy Bays, the Selenga delta, the beginning and upper current Angara river, the South-Baikal migration corridor, the northern slope of Khamar-Daban with Prybaikalye plain.
As an example is below given a description of some IBA. j Selenga Delta 52° 20' /106°25'
The valley and estuary of the largest tributary to Baikal Lake. Sharply continental climate moderated by the influence from Baikal water mass. Many windy days, average precipitation rate. Minimal water level in April - May, maximal in August - September. Birds and their habitats chiefly depend on the seasonal and yearly dynamics of Baikal water level. Breeding site for Asian Dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus) - 400-2200 pairs, during migration Baikal Teal (Anas formosa) - 100-1000 ind., number of migratory waterfowls reaches 3-5000000 ind. Breeding hotspot for Smew (Mergus albellus) - 40000 pairs, Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) -12000, Gray Heron (Ardea cinerea) - 3000.Northern Slope of Chamar-Daban51°27'/105°07'
The area is crossed by the Trans-Siberian railway. The Khamar-Daban range frames the Baikal rift area and is connected to the East Sayan mountains. Northern slope faces toward Baikal Lake. Chief habitats are forests and forests bogs. The range summits reach 2323 and 2374 m. Relief is contrast, slopes are steep. Climates are chaingeable with the precipitation rate - 650-1100 mm per year. Snowfalls provide up to 2 m snow by late winter. As a rule, the rivers take star from the alpine lakes. Many relic species of plants and invertebrates. Rich biome-restricted assemblages of the taiga, steppe and highland habitats. During  migration rare  species  recorded  Swan  Goose  (Cygnopsis cvenoides), Lesser White-Fronted Goose (Anser erythropus), Imperial Eagle (Aquila heliaca), Greater Spotted Eagle (Aquila clangs), Asian Dowitcher (Limnodromus semipalmatus).

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