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WORLD EXPERIENCE OF SOIL AND LANDSCAPE STUDIES AS A NECESSARY COMPONENT OF SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT IN THE BAIKAL REGION

Author:  Martinova N.
Source:  Water quality and traditions in lake areas: The 6-th Living Lakes Conference Ulan-Ude, Lake Baikal, Russia July 30-th – August 3-rd, 2001. – Ulan-Ude, 2001. – P.39-41

Baikal-Hubsugul basin belong to that territories, whose sustainable development has national, and, also great international importance. Such territories could be given priority attention in international strategies of environment policy.
Baikal and Hubsugul Lakes and the landscapes around them represent of the united natural system of regional level, in which the conservation unic properties of the process have been taken place resulting of them basin landscapes.
Today the main purpose of environmental protection becomes not saving of its separate components, but preservation of the nature as unit with all its amounting. During achievement of the given purpose the saving of soil diversity appears one the central problems. The success in the solution of this problem directly depends on maintenance of the indispensable reasons of the special soil conservation and, first of all such as: well-timed creation of the Soil Red data Book; mining of the theory of a soil and nature conservation as a whole from stands of the functional approach; the termination of further nonrational development of unrenewable natural resources; recovery broken down landscapes etc.
The affiliation of efforts of scientific miscellaneous countries helps to decide vital ecological problems, to rally efforts for achievement of the intended purposes. In this aspect the experience of
realization of joint international complex research expeditions is very indicative. Such forms of cooperation favour not only finding - out of scientific trues and more effective knowledge of nature laws and place of the person within it, but also allows to like spirit of other nation, realization of its cultural traditions and national values.  Russian-Mongolian complex Hubsugul expedition of Irkutsk and Mongolian State Universities - vivid example of such cooperation, which one is prolonged already about 30 years. The cooperation of two universities has helped not only to learn natural resources of Mongolia both to elaborate and to insert in effecting the scientific guidelines of the participants, but also bring up new highly professional scientific staff. The participation of student's youth on expeditions provides eligibility and special significance of education of a spiritual beginning. The researches of expedition were directed on analysis of biocenosises of Hubsugul Lake region and their significance for economy of Mongolia. The unique natural complexes of Baikal and Hubsugul basins, its   unusual   biogeochemical   properties   of  soils   and   landscapes, invironmental, historical and estetic value creations conditions for development of education,  scince and  culture cause the needless of the   solving   the   problems   of rational   nature   managment      and environment    conservation, development    of    the    programs    of sustainable   use   of   natural   resourses   evaluation   of   landscapes recreational    resourses   of   unique   nature   objects;    considerable participation together with other countriess scientiests in projects for more comprehensive account of antropogenic effects on basins nature. There are different"exzotic" classes of soil and landscapes, which are produced by their chemical properties (polymetallic,copper ores, etc) are present in Baikal and Hubsugul lakes regions.
The large attention of expedition was given to research of landscapes of a unique field of phosphorites of Mongolia. Investigated phosphoorite soils are characterised of a large quality of total and mobile phosphorous, which determine definite soils propeties and posibulity of water basin phosphstization .
Establishment of an integrated' system of protected areas is particularly noteworthy among the complex of measures for protection of the lake basin environment.
In light of this, a large national parks in the Hubsugul and Baikal lakes area were created and should be develope. In addition to protecting the unique ecisystem of Lake Hubsugul, the park would allow preservation of standard natural complexes typical of planetary boreal taiga and boreal steppe types mountainous Asian system.
In aspect of natural resources preservation of the Baikal region as World Heritage Site lakes Baikal, Hubsugul and the parts of the lake's basins, directly adjacent to it, should be designated as special state area with a particular regime of land use and environmental protection in the form of a Baikal State National (Nature) Park. It is recommended by a comprehensive Programe of Land Use Policies of Lake Baikal Region to expand of Pribaikalsky National Park and with Khamar Daban National Park and Okinsky, Olchon, Tunkinsky and Zakamensky natural antropological reserve, should be joined with Mongolia's Lake Hubsugul national park to form an international peace park. International cooperation & rich world experience can give a large support to do this.

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